Background and aims: The first hybrid artificial pancreas (AP) systems with insulin only (mono-hormonal) have recently reached the market while next generations systems are under development including those with glucagon addition (bi-hormonal). Understanding the expectations and impressions of future potential users about AP systems is important for optimal use of this clinically effective emerging technology.

Methods and results: An online survey about AP systems which consisted of 50 questions was addressed to people with type 1 diabetes in the province of Quebec, Canada. Surveys were completed by 123 respondents with type 1 diabetes (54% women, mean (SD) age 40.2 (14.4) y.o., diabetes duration 23.7 (14.1) years, 58% insulin pump users and 43% glucose sensor users). Of the respondents, 91% understood how AP systems work, 79% trusted them with correct insulin dosing, 73% were willing to replace their current treatment with AP and 80% expected improvement in quality of life. Anxiety about letting an algorithm control their glucose levels was expressed by 18% while the option of ignoring or modifying AP instructions was favoured by 88%. As for bi-hormonal AP systems, 83% of respondents thought they would be useful to further reduce hypoglycemic risks.

Conclusions: Overall, respondents expressed positive views about AP systems use and high expectations for a better quality of life, glycemic control and hypoglycemia reduction. Data from this survey could be useful to health care professionals and developers of AP systems.

Keywords: Artificial pancreas; glucagon; closed-loop insulin control; survey; type 1 diabetes; psychosocial aspects


Taleb Nadine, Quintal Ariane, Rakheja Rohan, Messier Virginie, Legault Laurent, Racine Eric, Rabasa-Lhoret Rémi. Perceptions and expectations of adults with type 1 diabetes for the use of artificial pancreas systems with and without glucagon addition: Results of an online survey. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 2020. (Online only)